I have and I’ve got


اجازه بدهید همین ابتدا موضوع این درس را در یک جمله بگوییم:

دو فعل have و have got معنی یکسانی دارند و مفهوم داشتن و بیان مالکیت را می‌رسانند.

I have blue eyes = I’ve got blue eyes.

Tom has two sisters. = Tom has got two sisters.

در زیر جدول صرف این دو فعل را آورده‌ایم:

have I
have we
have You
have they
has he
has she
has it

در ستون سمت راست جدول زیر، شکل خلاصه شده نوشته شده است:

I’ve gothave gotI

we’ve got

have got we

you’ve got

have got you
they’ve got have got they
he’s got has got he
she’s got has got she
it’s got has got it

اجازه بدهید بعد از بررسی جدول صرف، چند نمونه جمله را با هم ببینیم:

Our car has four doors. = Our car has got four doors.

Sarah Isn’t feeling well. She has a headache. = She‘s got a headache.

They like animals. They have a horse, three dogs, and six cats. = They’ve got a horse …

I don‘t have / I haven’t got

نحوه منفی کردن این دو فعل با همدیگر متفاوت است. به همین دلیل لازم است به این تفاوت توجه کنیم.

برای منفی کردن have از don’t و doesn’t استفاده می‌کنیم:

 

have don’t I
have don’t you
have don’t we
have don’t they
have doesn’t he
have doesn’t she
have doesn’t it

اما برای منفی کردن have got و has got کافیست مطابق جدول زیر not را بعد از have یا has بیاوریم:

 

got haven’t I
got haven’t you
got haven’t we
got haven’t they
got hasn’t he
got hasn’t she
got hasn’t it

در مثال‌های زیر نحوه منفی کردن این جملات نشان داده شده است:

I don’t have a car.

or

I haven’t got a car.

They don’t have any children.

or

They haven’t got any children.

It’s a nice house, but it doesn’t have a garage.

or

It’s a nice house, but it hasn’t got a garage.

Mariko doesn’t have a job right now.

or

Mariko hasn’t got a job right now.

سوالی کردن have و have got

نحوه سوالی کردن have و have got هم با هم متفاوت و به نوعی مشابه نحوه منفی کردن آنهاست.

برای سوالی کردن have از do و does استفاده می‌کنیم. در جدول زیر شیوه انجام این کار توضیح داده شده است:

have

I

DO

have you do
have we do
have they do
have he does
have she does
have it does

اما برای سوالی کردن جمله حاوی have got کافیست جای have و فاعل جمله را جابجا کنیم:

got

I

have

got you have
got we have
got they have
got he has
got she has
got it has

اجازه بدهید چند مثال زیر را با هم بخوانیم:

– Does Jennifer have a cart?  Yes, she does!

or
– Has Jennifer got a car? – Yes, she has.

What kind of car does she have?

or

What kind of car has she got?

How many children do they have?

or

How many children have they got?

– Do you have a camera? – No, I don’t.or
– Have you got a camera? – No, I haven’t.

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