there was/were – there has/have been – there will be


فرض کنید می‌خواهیم بگوییم هر یک ساعت، یک قطار وجود دارد. باید بگوییم:

There is a train every hour.

این کاربرد there را در درس قبل، یاد گرفتیم.

در آنجا صحبت فقط درباره زمان حال بود. در این درس، ابتدا There is و There are را به زمان گذشته می‌بریم:

The time now is 11:15.

There was a train at 11:00.

بعد آن را در زمان حال کامل و آینده ساده بررسی می‌کنیم.

There was / There were

شاید بهترین روش برای توضیح این موضوع این باشد که جملاتی را از زمان حال ساده به زمان گذشته ساده تبدیل کنیم

چند نمونه جمله برای There is / There are در زمان حال:

There is nothing on TV tonight.

We are staying at a very big hotel. There are ۱,۲۵۰ rooms.

Is everything OK? Are there any problems?

I’m hungry, but there isn’t anything to eat.

چند نمونه جمله برای There was / There were در زمان گذشته:

There was nothing on TV last night.

We stayed at a very big hotel. There were ۱,۲۵۰ rooms.

Was everything OK yesterday? Were there any problems?

I was hungry when I got home, but there wasn’t anything to eat.

همانطور که انتظار می‌رود، در جملات زمان گذشته ساده، به جای is و are، فرم گذشته افعال to be یعنی was و were را به کار می‌بریم.

[درس مرتبط: was و were]

There has been / There have been

در زمان حال کامل هم به جای is و are یا was و were از has been و have been استفاده می‌کنیم.

Look! There’s been an accident. (there’s been = there has been)

This road is very dangerous. There have been a lot of accidents.

[درس مرتبط: زمان حال کامل]

در اینجا توجه به تفاوت زمان گذشته ساده و حال کامل و تفکیک آنها ضروری است:

There was an accident last night (There has been an accident last night.)

[درس مرتبط:تفاوت حال کامل و گذشته ساده]

There will be

در شکل زمان آینده ترکیب There is و There are به جای is و are از will be استفاده می‌کنیم:

Do you think there will be a lot of people at the party on Saturday?

The president of the company is leaving, so there will be a new president soon.

I’m going out of town tomorrow. I’m packing my things today because there won’t be time tomorrow.
(there won’t be = there will not be)

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