a lot-much-many

در این درس، قصد داریم درباره much و many و a lot صحبت کنیم. این کلمات برای اشاره به تعدادی یا مقدار زیادی از یک چیز به کار برده می‌شوند.

much

 

much

much با اسامی غیرقابل شمارش به کار برده می‌شود.

Did you buy much food?

We don’t have much luggage.

How much money do you want?

A: Do you have any money?
B: I have some, but not much

many

many

کلمه many همراه با اسامی جمع استفاده می‌شود:

Did you buy many books?

We don’t know many people.

How many photos did you take?

A: Did you take any photos?
B: I took some, but not many.

همانطور که دیدید، کلمات بعد از many قابل شمارش و جمع هستند.

گاهی much و many را هم همراه so و as و to هم می‌آوریم:

Carla has so many friends.

She has as many friends as Sue.

Kevin has too much money.

a lot of

کلمات much و many کمی رسمی هستند. در فضای غیر رسمی بیشتر از a lot of استفاده می‌شود.

a lot

a lot of هم با اسامی جمع و هم با اسامی غیرقابل شمارش مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد:

We bought a lot of food.

Paula doesn’t have a lot of free time.

a lot

We bought a lot of books.

Did they ask a lot of questions?

There is a lot of food/money/water …

There are a lot of trees/stores/ people …

A lot of people speak English (not speaks)

a alot of در جملات مثبت کاربرد بیشتری نسبت به much و many دارد (به ویژه در جملات غیر رسمی).

جملات منفی و سوالی

اما much و many اکثراً در جملات سوالی و جملات منفی (نه خبری و مثبت) استفاده می‌شوند:

Do you drink much coffee?

I don’t drink much coffee.

Do you have many friends?

We don’t have many friends.

much در انواع جمله جمله (سوالی، منفی، خبری و مثبت)  کاربرد دارد:

I drink a lot of coffee.

We don’t have a lot of friends.

Do you know a lot of people?

I eat a lot of fruit. (not much fruit)

-Do you eat much fruit?
-Yes, a lot.

much و  a lot را می‌توان بدون اسم بعد از آن‌ها به کار برد، به مثال‌های زیر توجه کنید:

Rachel spoke to me, but she didn’t say much.

-Do you watch TV much?
-No, not much. (= not often)

We like movies, so we go to the movies a lot. (not go to the movies much)

I don’t like him very much.

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